In 1930, six years after the death of Vladimir Lenin, leader of the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917 and architect of the Soviet state, his remains were interred in a granite mausoleum on the western edge of Red Square. That same year, a monument honoring Kuzma Minin and Prince Dmitry Pozharsky, whose armies defeated a Polish invasion in 1612, was moved from in front of St. Basil's Cathedral to the center of the square. In the first half of the 20th century, Red Square became famous as the site of official military parades and demonstrations intended to display the strength of Soviet armed forces. In a dramatic display on November 7, 1941, lines of soldiers marched beside Soviet tanks directly from Moscow to the front during World War II, then only 50 kilometers away.
Even after the fall of the Soviet Union, Red Square remains an important center of Russia's cultural life and a top tourist destination. In 1990, UNESCO designated Red Square as one of its World Heritage sites. The enormous GUM Department Store a symbol of the Soviet era that covers the square's entire eastern end, is now marketed as a high-end shopping destination. At the northern end, the distinctive red brick State Historical Museum (built in 1873-75) is filled with the best of Russian history and art. And while fewer people may be lining up outside Lenin's tomb, the crowds continue to flock to Red Square for rock concerts, festivals and other events.